Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake

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To elucidate CPP uptake mechanisms, the effect of pyrenebutyrate on well-recognized CPPs with varying hydrophobicity and arginine content is investigated.The cellular CPP uptake and CPP-mediated oligonucleotide delivery is analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting, confocal microscopy, and a cell-based splice-switching assay.The splice-switching oligonucleotide is a mixmer of 2′--methyl RNA and locked nucleic acids delivered as a non-covalent complex with 10-fold molar CPP excess.CPP-induced membrane perturbation on large unilamellar vesicles is investigated in calcein release experiments.Aptamers functionalized on the GIAN nanostructure through simple, but strong, π–π interactions entered the cells through a clathrin-dependent pathway, while unmodified GIANs mainly entered the cells through a caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway.

Endocytosis and direct penetration have been suggested as the two major uptake mechanisms, a subject still under debate.

I am a neurobiologist working on the pathogenesis of Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease.

All adults with Down syndrome will develop Alzheimer disease neuropathology by age 40 years.

Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, China E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Center for Research at Bio/Nano Interface, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, Shands Cancer Center, UF Genetics Institute and Mc Knight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA Elucidating the endocytosis and metabolism of nanoparticles in cells could improve the diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficiency.

In this work, we explore the cellular uptake mechanism of a biocompatible nanocrystal nanostructure, graphene-isolated-Au-nanocrystals (GIANs), by monitoring the intrinsic Raman and two-photon luminescence signals of GIANs in live cells.

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